Jun 24, 2008

Campbell & Pre-Faith Regeneration

Alexander Campbell, as I have shown in previous entries, "came out swinging" against Hyper Calvinism, Hardshellism, or the "pre-faith" view of "regeneration," after having spent a decade or so with the Baptists. I have intimated so far, in my writings on Campbell and Hardshellism, that Hyper Calvinism and the "pre-faith" view of "regeneration" helped to create Alexander Campbell. I doubt that there would have been an Alexander Campbell, after the manner we now know him, had there been no Hyperism in his day.

Campbell, in his early writings against Hyperism, generally referred to three men whom he thought were guilty of Hyperism. He mentions specifically "Bellamy, Hopkins, and Fuller."

Though not addressed in this present writing, I do plan to look at the positions of these three men in upcoming writings with the purpose of discovering what these three men said and whether it agrees with what Campbell says about them. It may be strange for some to hear that Andrew Fuller could be classed in the "Hyper Calvinist" camp, but in upcoming writings it will be seen that Campbell was not "off base" in his charges here. Also, it is ironic that those truly Hyper Calvinists consider Andrew Fuller an "Arminian"!

The following citation from "The Christian Baptist" of 1824 gives us some insights into the state of things among the Baptists and Presbyterian Calvinists of the early 19th century.

Campbell wrote:

"The popular belief of a regeneration previous to faith, or a knowledge of the gospel, is replete with mischief. Similar to this is a notion that obtains among many of a "law work," or some terrible process of terror and despair through which a person must pass, as through the pious Bunyan's slough of Despond, before he can believe the gospel. It is all equivalent to this; that a man must become a desponding, trembling infidel, before he can become a believer. Now, the gospel makes no provision for despondency, inasmuch as it assures all who believe and obey it, upon the veracity of God, that they are forgiven and accepted in the Beloved.

A devout preacher told me, not long since, that he was regenerated about three years before he believed in Christ. He considered himself "as born again by a physical energy of the Holy Spirit, as a dead man would be raised to life by the mighty power of the Eternal Spirit." Upon his own hypothesis, (metaphysical, it is true,) he was three years a "godly unbeliever." He was pleasing and acceptable to God "without faith;" and if he had died during the three years, he would have been saved, though he believed not the gospel. Such is the effect of metaphysical theology." (MARCH 1, 1824 - "Address to the readers of the Christian Baptist")

I certainly am in agreement with Campbell here, as were many of our ablest Baptist leaders in Campbell's day. They too rejected the "pre-faith" view of "regeneration."

I also agree with Campbell that "conviction" is not a "law work," per se, and that the use of the law was not a necessary means or instrument in regeneration. Our ablest Baptist forefathers also believed with Campbell that men, with or without any convictions of the law, are nevertheless commanded to repent and believe and be saved. The gospel is able to bring about conviction of sin, as Campbell pointed out, and does not depend upon the preaching of the law as a necessary pre-regeneration work.

Yes, it is also ironic that Campbell would later himself come up with a strange creature, one as weird as the "regenerated unbeliever," whom we call a "unregenerated believer"!

Notice that Campbell speaks of the "pre-faith" view of "regeneration" as being "popular" at the time. How "popular" was it? That is the big question today for Baptist historians, hey?

This is contrary to what Dr. Jeter said (see in my previous entries in the series on Campbell and Hardshellism) who seemed to think that the Hyperism or Hardshellism, in Campbell's day, was only held by a very small group.

More to come.

Jun 22, 2008

Other Books in Progress

Yes, "of the making of books there is no end." But, God willing, I still am driven to write several books. I do this because I feel I have something to add to the church of Christ relative to several important issues in doctrine and practice.

I have just about completed my first book "My Daily Bread." I have plans of expanding on this, making both a morning and evening entry, as did Spurgeon with his own "Morning and Evening," but for now it will serve, in its first edition, a daily bible study.

In dividing the Hardshell book into volumes, I can say, that with only some editing yet to be done, that I have volume One completed and have hopes of completing volume two in the next couple months, and allowing me to go on to the other contemplated volumes.

I also have other books that I so desperately would love to begin spending more time in producing.

First, I want to complete my work on the "Second Coming." I believe I can put forth a very profitable work and study for Christians on this topic. I plan for it to be "exhaustive" as has the book on the Hardshells thus far, and on the book dealing with a year's bible lessons.

In this book on the second coming of Christ, I plan to deal with the rapture, the signs of the times, the issue of "imminency," and with the "Great Tribulation." I also plan to deal with the coming of Antichrist, and with the Middle East in Bible Prophecy, and with the future of Babylon (Iraq).

Second, I intend, by the help of God, to get my book written on the "Weak" versus the "Strong" brothers of the Roman and First Corinthian epistles. I too think that this book will be of benefit to the body of Christ.

Third, I intend also to write a book on "New Wine in New Bottles," and will be a book dealing with the Old and New Covenants and how the history of the Christian church is full of examples where there have been attempts to incorporate Old Testament law and ritual into the New Testament code of conduct.

Fourth, I intend to write a book on "Campbellism." The intensive research that I have done of the history of the Hardshells, the "twin" of the Campbellites, has led me to write a book on Campbellism, particularly in its relation to Hardshellism and Hyper Calvinism. I have also had numerous debates with the Campbellites.

Keep us in your prayers that these intentions are of the Lord and that it will please him and bless his people.

Jun 19, 2008

The Hardshell Baptist Cult in Volumes

This week I will have completed a whole year of entries in "My Daily Bread" web blog. I am happy to be finished with this. It will still require some editing and revising over the next month or so, but this has been a tremendous work. I believe that this book will possibly be of great benefit to all Christians, to bible students generally, but especially to pastors and teachers. These entries deal with 366 topics!

In doing these daily bible lessons I did my best to first assemble all the pertinent passages on a topic and arrange them in a way that would make a nice bible class study. I tried to limit my remarks to word explanantion and to comments that would elucidate the texts cited.

I do have hopes of making these lessons available in a book and CD form and hope I can find ways of marketing them to churches and Christians.

I plan to continue my blog "My Daily Bread," but it will not be as involved in it as I have been this past year.

Finishing this book of one year's daily devotions, I am now able to devote more time to the other books that are being worked on.

I have decided to try to publish my book - "The Hardshell Baptist Cult" - into volumes. Dividing this lengthy exhaustive book into more than one volume makes sense. I have divided the chapters, both published and planned, into appropriate volumes. The first volume would serve as a very good "primer" on the denomination. The later volumes would be for the more serious student of the denomination, and would deal more with their history than with their doctrines from a scriptural standpoint, although the latter is certainly included.

Already Published

Volume 1

Chapter 1 - The Primitive Baptist Church
Chapter 2 - Personal Experiences
Chapter 3 - The Hardshell Cult
Chapter 4 - Hardshell History
Chapter 5 - Hardshell Extremism
Chapter 6 - Hardshell Hypocrisy & Peculiarities
Chapter 7 - Time Salvation - A Novel Idea
Chapter 8 - The Spirit Alone Theory of Regeneration
Chapter 9 - Hardshell Logic on Regeneration
Chapter 10 - Hardshellism & The Infant & Idiot
Chapter 11 - Saved By Money?
Chapter 12 - Hardshells on Faith (A Primer)
Chapter 13 - Hardshells On Faith (Conclusion)
Chapter 14 - Hard-Shell Busters (First Cracking)
Chapter 15 - Hardshells On Repentance (Primer)
Chapter 16 - Hardshells On Repentance (Conclusion)
Chapter 17 - Hard-Shell Busters (Second Cracking)
Chapter 18 - Hardshells on Conversion
Chapter 19 - Coming To Christ
Chapter 20 - Direct Voice Speaking (Historical)
Chapter 21 - Direct Voice Speaking (Doctrinal)
Chapter 22 - More On The Voice Of Christ
Chapter 23 - I Peter 1:23
Chapter 24 - James 1:18
Chapter 25 - I Cor. 4:15
Chapter 26 - Hot Shots Returned (1st Volley)
Chapter 27 - Hot Shots Returned (2nd Volley)
Chapter 28 - Hot Shots Returned (3rd Volley)
Chapter 29 - Hot Shots Returned (4th Volley)
Chapter 30 - Hot Shots Returned (5th Volley)
Chapter 31 - Hot Shots Returned (6th Volley)
Chapter 32 - Hot Shots Returned (7th Volley)
Chapter 33 - Romans 10 & Gospel Means
Chapter 34 - Romans 10 (cont.)
Chapter 35 - Parable of the Sower & Seed
Chapter 36 - Pray for the Salvation of your Children?
Chapter 37 - Eternal Children Doctrine
Chapter 38 - Eternal Children Doctrine II
Chapter 39 - Hollow Log Doctrine
Chapter 40 - Biblical Regeneration
Chapter 41 - Infant Regeneration
Chapter 42 - Addresses To The Lost I
Chapter 43 - Addresses To The Lost II
Chapter 44 - Addresses To The Lost III
Chapter 45 - Addresses To The Lost IV
Chapter 46 - Addresses To The Lost V
Chapter 47 - Addresses To The Lost VI
Chapter 48 - Addresses To The Lost VII
Chapter 49 - Elder Leland's Preaching
Chapter 50 - From Law to Grace?
Chapter 51 - Regenerated AND Converted?
Chapter 52 - Beebe-Trott Model
Chapter 53 - Regeneration Evidence?
Chapter 54 - On Conviction I
Chapter 55 - On Conviction II
Chapter 56 - On Conviction III
Chapter 57 - The Original Paradigm

I will be expanding on several chapters before publishing by the end of the year, the Lord willing, particularly chapters 35, 36, 40 & 41.

Volume 2

Chapter 58 - Hardshells on Gill I
Chapter 59 - Hardshells on Gill II
Chapter 60 - Hardshells on Gill III
Chapter 61 - Hardshells on Gill IV
Chapter 62 - Hardshells on Gill V
Chapter 63 - Hardshells on Gill VI
Chapter 64 - Hardshells on Gill VII
Chapter 65 - Hardshells on Gill VIII
Chapter 66 - The Great Commission I
Chapter 67 - The Great Commission II
Chapter 68 - The Great Commission III
Chapter 69 - The Great Commission IV
Chapter 70 - The Great Commission V
Chapter 71 - The Great Commission VI
Chapter 72 - The Great Commission VII
Chapter 73 - The Great Commission VIII
Chapter 74 - The Great Commission IX
Chapter 75 - The Great Commission X
Chapter 76 - The Great Commission XI
Chapter 77 - The Great Commission XII
Chapter 78 - The Great Commission XIII
Chapter 79 - Hardshells & Missions I
Chapter 80 - Hardshells & Missions II
Chapter 81 - Hardshells & Missions III
Chapter 83 - Hardshells & Missions IV
Chapter 84 - Hardshells & Missions V
Chapter 85 - Hardshell Proof Texts I
Chapter 86 - Hardshell Proof Texts II
Chapter 87 - Hardshell Proof Texts III
Chapter 88 - Hardshell Proof Texts IV
Chapter 89 - Hardshell Proof Texts V
Chapter 90 - Hardshell Proof Texts VI
Chapter 91 - Hardshell Proof Texts VII
Chapter 92 - Paradigm Problems I
Chapter 93 - Paradigm Problems II
Chapter 94 - Paradigm Problems III
Chapter 95 - Paradigm Problems IV
Chapter 96 - Conditional or Unconditional? I
Chapter 97 - Conditional or Unconditional? II
Chapter 98 - Conditional or Unconditional? III

(Chapters in Red to be completed)

Upcoming Series for future Volumes

1. Hardshell Hermeneutics
2. Evolution in Doctrine
3. Rise of the Hardshells
4. Hardshells & Predestination
5. Perseverance or Preservation?
6. Hardshell Landmarkism
7. Hardshell Founding Fathers
8. Reviewing Hardshell Histories
9. Hardshell Slayers Hall of Fame

Jun 12, 2008

Founders Reformers Rebaptizing?

On the Founders blog, Tom Ascol is reporting from the Pastor's conference and at the Founder's breakfast meetings at the Southern Baptist Convention. He posted this item of news in his first reporting.

"The Pastors' Conference is over but not without some noteworthy comments coming from the various messages. Though I didn't hear it myself, I heard on good authority that Charles Lowrey actually said in his message that God told him to get "baptized again" as an encouragement for others to get baptized who might be hesitant...and he was advocating this for the pastors to whom he was preaching!"

What can we say to this "news"? Is it "good news"?

1. Well, that ought to be one way to get an increase in the number of baptisms!

2. What are these preachers saying? That they were not saved till they became five point Calvinists or came to understand the "doctrines of grace"? Where will this end?

How do these people know they were not "regenerated" when they said the sinner's prayer, or asked Jesus into their hearts? By their definition of "regeneration" they cannot know that they were not "regenerated," can they?

And then in the second posting we have this report:

"Eric Redmond hit a homerun in his message this morning at the Founders Breakfast. He preached out of 2 Chronicles 34 on "The Reformation that Must Come." It was bold, courageous, insightful and prophetic. An audio of the message will be made available as soon as possible, hopefully, by the end of the week at the latest."

This reminds me so much of the Campbellites and their repeated calls to "reform"!

Frankly, the kind of "reform" that these brethren are talking about we can all live without!

Jun 9, 2008

Campbell's Hardshellism

The following are areas where Alexander Campbell tried to win the favor of the Hardshells (Hyperists) on the one hand, and where he alienated them on the other.

Campbell's Hardshellism

1. His anti mission stance.

2. His views that the "Great Commission" had been fulfilled.

3. His belief that the miracles and gift of tongues was intimately connected with the life of the "Great Commission."

4. His belief that it was wrong for pastors to have salaries or to receive monetary support.

5. His belief that theological schools were unscriptural.

6. His belief that bible distribution was unscriptural.

7. His belief that passing out gospel tracts was unscriptural.

8. His belief that the Baptist Confessions should be not followed or endorsed (with some).

9. His belief that the Baptist denomination needed to be 'reformed.'

10. His belief that most Christians, even Baptists, were part of "Mystery Babylon" and "Anti-Christ."

11. Against musical instruments in worship.

Campbell's anti-Hardshellism

1. His belief that regeneration was only through the word and never by the Spirit alone.

2. His belief that regeneration followed, rather than preceded, faith.

3. His belief that no spiritual influences were at work upon the sinner prior to his regeneration.

4. His disbelief in a "call to the ministry."

5. His ridiculing the "experiences" of "regeneration" among the Hardshells.

6. His ridiculing Hardshell preachers for their "spiritualizing" of scriptures.

7. His ridiculing the "ignorance" of the Hardshell ministry.

8. His ridiculing the Old Baptist Confessions (with some).

Jun 4, 2008

Campbellism & Hyperism IV

In this writing I wish to cite again from Dr. Jeter, but not from the biography of Broaddus, as in the previous posting, but to cite from a writing that Jeter put forth against Campbell in 1855. One wonders why it took so long for men to come out boldly against Campbell, as did Jeter in 1855? Yes, there had been some small efforts to correct or to check the precocious Campbell, but they were insufficient.

I will pause at times in these citations to make observations as it respects the relationship of Campbell to the Hyper Calvinist view on regeneration.

Jeter Attacks Campbell on Behalf of the Baptists (1855)

"Mr. Campbell, in his great zeal to steer clear of all speculative theology, maintains that all theories of the Spirit’s influence in conversion are equally inefficacious and worthless. He thus writes—"But who can live on essential oils? Or will the art of speculating or inferring; or will the inferences when drawn—that the Spirit without the Word, or the Word without the Spirit, or the Spirit and Word in conjunction, regenerates the human soul; I ask, will the act of drawing these inferences, of these inferences when drawn, save the soul? If they will not, why make them essential to Christianity, beneficial to be taught?" [Chn. Bap., p.269]. I am no more an advocate of mere speculation and empty theory, than Mr. Campbell. The subject of the Spirit’s influence has been a fruitful source of profitless theorizing and vain jangling. I fully concur with him in the opinion that preaching the influence of the Spirit, is not preaching the Gospel; and that much mischief has arisen from insisting on this influence to the neglect of the duty of repentance and faith. But whether men are converted by the Spirit without the Word, or the Word without the Spirit, or the Word and Spirit in conjunction, are not questions of mere speculation, but grave, weighty, and practical. Whatsoever is legitimately inferred from the Scriptures is a part of Divine revelation, and profitable for instruction. The belief of it may not be essential to salvation; and yet it may contribute to the growth, happiness, and efficiency of the disciples of Christ. The influence of the Holy Spirit in the conversion of sinners is not a mere theory, but a revealed truth, the belief of which is intimately connected with the progress of the Redeemer’s kingdom."

I need to pause here and observe how Jeter mentions the three views that were then existent among the Baptists, that of the "Spirit Alone" view of the Hypers or Hardshells, and of the "Word Alone" view of the "Reformers," and the "Spirit AND the Word" view of historic Confessional Baptists. It also appears to me that Jeter basically admits, like Campbell, that there was prevalent in the Baptist denomination, and others too, mystical and strange views on what men called "regeneration" and the "new birth." Later, as we shall see from the citations to follow, Jeter seemed to contradict this admission. He here says that many false theories of "spiritual influences" in relation to the new birth were prevalent, but then will later say that only a very few "Hypers" advocated the error of "Spirit Alone," the view that Campbell seems chiefly to have had his eye on destroying.

Jeter says:

"First. —Are the statements of Mr. Campbell concerning the influence of the Holy Spirit contradictory? In my judgment they are. Whether his views on the subject were confused, or differed at different times, or were carelessly and vaguely expressed, I will not say; but they appear to me to be inconsistent. "The only power," says Mr. Campbell, "which one spirit can exert over another is in its arguments." If this is not the "word alone system," I would gladly be informed what that system is. I repeat, I must be permitted to doubt whether any man ever has taught, or ever can teach the system, if Mr. Campbell did not inculcate it in his Christianity Restored. And yet he affirms in his Debate with Rice, "There is the Word alone system, and there is the Spirit alone system. I believe in neither."

This is quite important historically! Campbell here is a sound Baptist on this point. He rejects Campbellism and Hardshellism in regard to the new birth, believing that it is by the Spirit and the Word.

Jeter continues:

"Secondly, Are the last recited extracts from the writings of Mr. Campbell to be interpreted in harmony with the theory of conversion by moral suasion? Are we to understand all that he has said of the cooperation of the Spirit and Word—of religion "begun, carried on, and completed by the personal agency of the Holy Spirit" —of his "actually and personally" working through the Word on "man’s moral nature" —as meaning nothing more than that the Spirit addresses arguments, through the written Word, to sinners, to persuade them to be converted; and that having done this his resources are exhausted, his power is spent? In other words, is the actual, personal agency of the Spirit, pleaded for by Mr. Campbell, to be resolved into mere moral suasion? If so, the system has been already examined, and the reader must decide whether it has been satisfactorily refuted. But if Mr. Campbell rejects the doctrine of conversion by moral suasion, or by the mere presentation of the arguments of the Holy Spirit to the mind, then I remark,

Thirdly, —That Mr. Campbell’s teaching is in substantial agreement with the popular evangelical doctrine of conversion through Divine influence. There is no middle ground between the "Word alone," or moral suasion system, and that which ascribes conversion to the personal agency of the Spirit through the Word. This latter system is the popular evangelical system—the system is the popular evangelical system—the system universally taught, when Mr. Campbell commenced his Reformation, except by a few ultra-Calvinists, and low Armenians and formalists—the system which permeated almost all our Biblical and theological literature; our commentaries, Bible dictionaries, bodies of divinity, and popular sermons—in fine, the system which maintained a quiet, undisputed, and controlling influence in all the orthodox churches of the land."

Notice how Jeter says that Hyper Calvinism, or Hardshellism, in regard to the new birth, was unimportant, seeing only a small minority held that view. While it is true that the majority of the Baptists, and a large group of "anti-mission" Baptists, believed in means in regeneration, yet there was still a large segment who adopted the "Spirit Alone" view of "regeneration" or who at least were decrying the "necessity" of the word or of faith in the new birth.

Then why was Campbell so fervent in his initial efforts to reform the Baptists who he thought were going further and further into the "Spirit Alone" view? Campbell was very familiar with the Baptists in the frontier states, in Virginia, Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee in particular. He knew that the Hyperist "Spirit Alone" view was prevalent and growing.

Jeter continues:

"Mr. Campbell believes as the great body of evangelical ministers in all the Christian sects, believes, that sinners are converted by the personal agency of the Holy Spirit, through the Gospel. But, surely, since the world began, have there never been so many labored arguments, so much learned criticism, so much toil, debate and strife, such a waste of ink and paper, and such a multiplication of essays, pamphlets and books, to prove what scarcely any body doubted. The public mind was excited, the Christian world was agitated, the Baptist denomination, in several states, was thrown into confusion, many of the churches were rent asunder, a new sect was formed, and the aid of earth and heaven was invoked in the contest; and for what? Why, simply because Mr. Campbell taught, what was almost universally admitted that the Spirit in conversion operates through the Word. But what then becomes of the boasted Reformation, of which the peculiar teaching on the influence of the Spirit constituted so important and article? It turns out, if the supposition under discussion is true, that the Reformation, on this important point, is no Reformation at all. We cannot avoid being reminded of a well known fable. Surely, there were never in any previous case, such sore travail, such mighty heavings, such piteous moanings, and such swelling expectations, in a simple case of abortion."

Again, I think that Jeter underestimates the extent of the prevalence of Hardshellism among the Baptists. He may have done this because he did not want to admit that the Hardshells had any tradition or historicalness to their claim of being "Baptistic" or "Confessional." Yes, the Hardshell view has always been a minority opinion, but Jeter fails to note how that in the days when Campbell was a quiet Baptist, from 1812 till the early 1820's, that the Hyperist view was widespread. Campbell had to personally battle men like Daniel Parker.

Jeter continues:

"Before I conclude my remarks on this subject, I must venture on a conjecture, which will, I fear, not prove very acceptable to Mr. Campbell and his admirers. It is this—When he commenced his career as a Reformer, his religious views were undefined and crude. His first object was to bring into disrepute the "mystic theology" of the "populars," or "clergy."

Here Jeter verily admits what I have thus claimed about the initial reformatory aims of Campbell. Campbell's first efforts were to battle the Hardshells, and what is associated with Hardshellism's "Spirit Alone" view of "regeneration," the "mystical theology" of many in their explanations of things like "sub-conscious regeneration" or "regeneration before or without faith."

Another thing that Campbell fought was the "hermeneutics" of these Hyperists, how they could "spiritualize" literal passages of scripture, and use such allegorizing methods to uphold their "mystical" views on regeneration.

Jeter continues:

"He found it necessary, for the accomplishment of his purpose, to publish some theory at variance with the popular doctrine of the Spirit’s influence in conversion. This new theory began to be developed about the year 1826, and was consummated, and fully revealed, in the year 1831, when Austin taught the docile Timothy, that "every Spirit puts forth its moral power in words; that is, all the power it has over the views, habits, manners, or actions of men, is in the meaning and arrangement of its ideas expressed in words; or in significant signs addressed to the eye or ear." [Christianity Restored, p. 348]."

And, are these dates not important in the history of the Hardshells and the "anti-mission movement"? Why did Campbell come out so strongly for the word in regeneration at this time if it was not a reaction to the Hardshells and their promoting of the "Spirit Alone" view?

Jeter continues:

"But after the Reformation resulted in an organized party, Mr. Campbell, to avoid the odium of his peculiar notions of the Spirit’s influence, or because he found it easier to defend the popular doctrine, began gradually to modify his views, and to glide out of the theory of conversion by moral suasion, into the doctrine that conversion is by the actual, personal agency of the Holy Spirit. This modification of his views began to appear in a discussion of the subject with the Rev. J. M. Peck, and was still more apparent in his Debate with the Rev. N.L. Rice. But for Mr. Campbell to acknowledge that he had erred in the fundamental principle of his Reformation, and that after all his wanderings, and denunciations of the "popular clergy," he had been compelled to admit the truth of their teaching on this vital point, would have demanded a degree of humility and moral heroism, which the high-spirited Reformer did not possess.

I do not intend to impeach the motives of Mr. Campbell. With their moral qualities I have nothing to do. Men are influenced by considerations of which they have little knowledge. Mr. Campbell has quite a fair share of human nature in him. He does not rise above the laws which govern other frail mortals. I have simply, and, I trust, kindly sketched what appears to me to have been his course in regard to the agency of the Spirit in conversion, and the motives that probably shaped it; and the intelligent and candid reader must form his own judgment.
("Campbellism Examined" by Jeremiah B. Jeter)


Campbell & Hyperism III

The following writing from the biography of Andrew Broaddus, written by Dr. Jeter, is very interesting. In my previous writings in this ongoing series, I have shown how Alexander Campbell, after a few years with the Baptists, began to despise certain elements in the Baptist denomination, one of which was "Hyper Calvinism" or "Hardshellism" with its view of "Spirit Alone Regeneration" and with its wild theories regarding spiritual influences or operations. Against these theories Campbell came out fighting. I am sure that men like Broaddus, Semple, and Peck, were happy to applaud him in these efforts. But, I have also shown, Campbell always had an eye on how he might "play chess" with the various factions (pieces) of the Baptist denomination.

In Campbell's attempt to "win over" the "Hardshells" and the "Hypers" he used tactics to win them over, apart from his attempts to convert them on the "means" question, and one of these ways to to incorporate many of their ideas regarding "missions" and "church work" into his own reformation. Alexander Campbell was one of the leading opponents of the mission movement and curried the favor of the Hypers in the process.

Another tactic came later when he modified a prevelant view on "regeneration" that existed among the Baptists and Presbyterians, that there were "three stages" to the "new birth." I have already alluded to this view in previous writings. Campbell modified this view by making baptism the birth, but still putting the "begetting" prior to the "birth," making it something distinct, the final step in the "regeneration process." This is evident from the following citations from Broaddus's biography.

"Dr. Jeter could not as a faithful biographer, fail to mention the part Elder Broaddus acted in reference to the Reformation advocated by the distinguished Alexander Campbell of Bethany, Va. We quote from the memoir:

"Mr. Broaddus was one of the last to relinquish the hope of reclaiming Mr. Campbell from what he deemed the path of error. Long did he continue to fraternize with him, and endeavor, by kid and faithful arguments, to convince him; but the appearance of the Millennial Harbinger Extra, in which his peculiar and objectionable views were more fully disclosed, put an end to all his hopes. He had been willing to tolerate many differences of opinion on minor points, and the utmost freedom of inquiry and discussion, and to bear with much in the spirit and manner of Mr. Campbell, which he disapproved; but when the gospel schemes of a sinner's justification was set aside, and the influence of the Holy Spirit before baptism was denied, or treated in an equivocal and unsatisfactory manner, he felt that the time of forbearance and fraternization had passed. He owed a duty to truth, to the Baptist denomination, to the christian world, and to himself, and he hesitated not to perform it." (p. 28)

We have ever regarded Elder Broaddus' Examination of Mr. Campell's Extra on Remission of Sins as one of the best specimens of sound argument and courteous discussion we have ever seen. Mr. C. contended for the real, actual remission of sins in baptism. Mr. B. proved conclusively that the real, actual remission of sins takes place when the sinner embraces Jesus Christ by faith, and that there is only a formal remission or washing away of sins in baptism. Mr. C. had said that a man might be "impregnated with the word" and "begotten of the Spirit" — (we suggest to Dr. Jeter that to this extent he admitted the influence of the Spirit before baptism —) but that he could not be "born of the Spirit till born of the water" or baptized. He said that if a person was "born of the water" without being previously "begotten of the Spirit," it was "a still birth!" Many of Mr. Campbell's admirers thought his explanation of the regenerating process superior to any thing that the world had seen or heard, and they began to philophize [sic] on spiritual 'impregnation,' 'begetting,' 'being born,' &c. Well, Elder Broaddus looked into the matter and saw the strange 'medley of figures.' In violation of an analogy established ever since Adam begat Cain, Mr. C. represented the person to be born — the spiritual fetus — as impregnated! And, he said that was a 'still birth' in baptism if there was not a previous 'begetting of the Spirit,' thus exciting the obstetrical wonder of the curious throughout Christendom how there could be any sort of 'birth' without 'begetting!' Mr. B. employed his delicate satire so effectually that Mr. C. in subsequent editions of his Extra, left out several things which are to be found in the first edition. We doubt not Mr. C. is much more Scriptural in his views now than he was then (1830). Indeed in his Lexington Debate we think him just as orthodox on the influence of the Holy Spirit, as Dr. Rice. Perhaps we cannot give impartial judgment; for we confess we are a little impatient in thinking how pertinacious Dr. R. was in his purpose to apply the terms 'conversion' and 'sanctification' to infants when there was no more reference to them in the proposition than to the man in the moon. But enough of this." ("The Life and Writings of Rev. Andrew Broaddus"
- Christian Repository, 1852. By Rev. James M. Pendleton - Bowling Green, KY)

Not only are these citations important regarding how Campbell adopted the 3-Stage Model of the "new birth," but how he also, as I showed previously, did not want to disagree with Broaddus and Peck on the question of "spiritual influences" and how regeneration was accomplished, as the Confessions stated, by the "Spirit AND the word," and perhaps was led to "back-track" in his views due to their labors. Still, as I also said, it seems that the followers of Campbell were willing to go to the full extreme, while Campbell was unwilling to attempt to undo the damage he had done, or admit his mistake.