Aug 18, 2009

Debate Affirmative

The following are my notes for the Affirmative. I used many of these arguments.

The proposition for tonight is:

"The Scriptures teach that the alien sinner is forgiven of his past sins by faith, before and without water baptism."

By the Scriptures I mean the original inspired writings. By alien sinner I mean a lost condemned soul. "By faith" I mean by believing in or trusting in Christ. The other terms, I think, are self explanatory.

Further, though the proposition speaks only of the "forgiveness of sins," this does not rule out other aspects of salvation.

In the scriptures, initial conversion or salvation, is denominated by varied terms and figures, such as being saved, justified, washed, sanctified, renewed, regenerated, born again, re-created, redeemed, ransomed, etc.

Further, the experience of conversion, in scripture, is characterized by evangelical terminology. Thus, a converted or saved man is spiritually "gifted" or "endowed" by God.

For instance, a converted man is one who has been "given" faith. So Jesus said in John 6: 65 - "no man can come unto me (believe in me) except it were given unto him of my Father." Thus, a pardoned, justified, and saved man is one who has by faith come to Christ.

Also, a converted man is also given repentance. Wrote Paul in II Timothy 2: 25 - "In meekness instructing those that oppose themselves; if God peradventure will give them repentance to the acknowledging of the truth."

Further, the converted man is one who has been given the Holy Spirit. (Many passages)

You will notice two things about these terms that are descriptive of the Christian convert and of the conversion experience. Some of the descriptive terms speak of internal changes while others speak of purely external changes. An internal change is an actual change of the soul, heart, or mind. An external change is a change of state, or of legal status.

In the scriptures, these two types of changes, though distinct, nevertheless occur in conjunction. They are concurrent. That is, they occur together. Therefore, we say, that any man who fits any one of these terms fits them all. Thus, we cannot separate the terms and the experiences they represent. We cannot say of a man, for instance, that he is justified, but not saved, or that he is converted, but not born again.

Now, it is the view of my opponent that a man is not pardoned, washed, sanctified, justified, nor born again, till he is baptized in water. In the scriptures, however, salvation is promised to the one who simply "believes" penitently and sincerely in Christ, or to the one who has faith in God and Christ, or in the gospel.

When we say that a man is saved or forgiven simply "by believing," or by "faith alone," we are not talking about any kind of "believing," or any kind of "faith." The reasons for this are obvious.

The scriptures make a distinction between a believing that saves versus a believing that saves not, between a faith that is availing and one that is described as being vain or worthless, which is one that is hypocritical and insincere. The scriptures distinguish between real saving faith that includes trust in and love for Christ versus a mere faith in certain theological facts, or historical belief, such as the demons and ungodly men have. Faith, to be genuine faith, does not require water baptism! Faith is living and genuine before baptism.

Faith or belief that lacks love for Christ, and lacks allegiance to Christ, and which does not produce good fruit, and good works, is not saving faith. True saving faith can only be known by the obedience that follows faith. Faith that lacks conviction of sin and repentance is also not saving faith.

The Lord Jesus distinguished between the "believing" of the shallow ground hearers and the "believing" of the good ground hearers, in the parable of the soils. The shallow ground hearers did not have true saving faith, for their hearts were lacking, not possessing a good and honest character, and therefore they only "believed for awhile" and "in time of trial" soon "fell away." Those who believe without sincerity, and without honesty and goodness of heart, have a dead faith, a faith that will not save. So, in this debate, the "believer" I am talking about is the good ground believer, not the shallow ground believer, one who has true, saving, penitent, lasting and enduring faith.

Argument #1 - Believing = Receiving

In the New Testament scriptures, salvation is experienced and promised to those who "receive" Christ. How and when does one "receive" Christ? This is a crucial question. Does one receive Christ when he believes in Christ or when, subsequently, he obeys Christ in water baptism?

Notice these passages.

"He came unto his own, and his own received him not. But as many as received him, to them gave he power to become the sons of God, even to them that believe on his name: Which were born, not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God." (John 1: 11-13 KJV)

Here "receiving" Christ is equated with "believing" on the name of Christ, and "believing" and "receiving" are equated with being "born" of God.

"Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that receiveth whomsoever I send receiveth me; and he that receiveth me receiveth him that sent me." (John 13: 20)

Thus, to "receive" Christ is to receive his regents and to receive his words, or the gospel. Believing is receiving.

"Then they that gladly received his word were baptized: and the same day there were added unto them about three thousand souls." (Acts 2: 41)

Notice that Christ was "received" prior to water baptism. This is conclusive proof of my proposition. Baptism follows reception of Christ. Baptism follows union with Christ, and salvation. To receive Christ is to receive salvation. These received Christ before baptism. Therefore, they were saved before baptism.

"To him give all the prophets witness, that through his name whosoever believeth in him shall receive remission of sins." (Acts 10: 43)

Notice again how, like John 1: 11-13, believing is equated with receiving. These words also imply that the forgiveness of sins is immediate upon believing. It is not what may or may not come to pass, but is rather what shall universally comes to pass without fail. According to my opponent, there are lots of folks who "believe" that never "receive remission of sins"! Many of these folks, with genuine saving faith, are never baptized! Thus, they never "receive remission of sins"! Yet, this passage affirms that all who "believe," ceremoniously baptized or not, "SHALL receive remission"!

"But this spake he of the Spirit, which they that believe on him should receive: for the Holy Ghost was not yet given; because that Jesus was not yet glorified." (John 7: 39)

When did they "receive" this "spirit" of God? When they believed or when they were subsequently baptized? When did Cornelius and his household receive the Spirit of God? Was it not before he and they were baptized? When and how did the Galatians receive the Spirit of God? Did Paul not clearly say it was "by the hearing of faith" and not by deeds performed?

My opponent believes that a man does not simply receive Christ by believing, but by acting out his faith in a ritual ceremony. His view is that a penitent believer, though having received the word of Christ, has nevertheless not yet received Christ himself, nor his Spirit, nor his salvation.

"As ye have therefore received Christ Jesus the Lord, so walk ye in him." (Col. 2: 6)

This verse is interesting because it is in the context where burial with Christ in baptism is mentioned. Verse 6 is part of Paul's introduction to the things he says later, in this chapter, about aspects of redemption and salvation, such as being identified with Christ, or united to him, in his death, burial, and resurrection, and in spiritual circumcision, and thus being accounted forgiven and justified.

In the ordo salutis as given by Paul, in this chapter, what comes first, at least in time? Is it not union with Christ by faith? Is it not the initial "receiving" of Christ? When did the Colossians "receive" Christ? Was it when they believed the gospel or when they were baptized? Is water baptism what Paul alludes to when he speaks of "receiving" Jesus? Or, does he allude to their receiving of Christ in "believing"? That is the chief question to be decided.

The scriptures also speak of believers

"receiving the atonement" (Rom. 5: 11)
"receiving abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness" (5: 17)
"receiving the Spirit of adoption" (8: 15)
"receiving the promise of the Spirit through faith" (Gal. 3: 14)

Believing is the vehicle for receiving Christ, salvation, and the Spirit of God, and not water baptism, nor any work done after faith. In fact, it is specifically required that a man first receive Christ and his word before he is eligible to be baptized. Salvation is immediate with a person's reception of Christ by faith.

These versus clearly affirm that a man "receives" Christ when he believes in Christ with a good and honest heart, and in thus receiving Christ, he is united to him, and thus partakes of all his benefits and spiritual blessings. Men are not united to Christ in baptism. Rather, a reception of Christ, and union with him by faith, is a prerequisite to baptism.

Argument #2 - No Internal Change in Baptism

The scriptures describe the state of soul of a converted or saved man as being the result of a radical change. This moral change involves, what we may appropriately call, psychological changes. They are internal changes. There are external changes of legal state and standing connected with the experience of salvation. as I have said. But, in this argument I focus only on the internal changes to the heart, soul, or mind. It is my contention that there is no internal change made to the soul of a believer, in being baptized, that has not already occurred in conjunction with the internal experience of faith and repentance. I want my opponent to tell us what change of heart, soul, or mind, took place in water baptism that had not already occurred at the point of penitent faith.

Let us then focus on the condition and character of the qualified baptismal candidate. Has his heart yet been changed? Or, must if yet be changed in the baptismal waters? When is the soul, heart, mind, or spirit of the sinner transformed? What changes occur in this transformation?

When does the spirit partake of Christ? When does it unite itself to him? When does it receive him? When does it become humble to salvation? When does it become penitent, or begin acknowledging and confessing truth about God and self? When are the words of life inscribe by divine hand upon the mind of the sinner? When does God breathe into the soul his very life?

According to my opponent, a man, though having received Christ and his word, and even though he has repented or changed his mind about Christ, and has committed himself to him, to be his disciple, and even though he has believed in or trusted in Christ, has nevertheless not yet experienced the new birth, nor the new creation, nor spiritual resurrection from death, not renewal of heart or spirit! All this internal change, occurring before water baptism, is not salvation, according to my opponent. In fact, as I contend, my opponent's position posits no internal change occurring in the act of water baptism.

When does one eat Christ, the bread of life? In water baptism? Or, at the point of faith? When does one drink the water of life? In water baptism? When are God's words written on the heart?

Argument #3 - Baptism excluded from the Terms of Pardon

"Repent ye therefore, and be converted, that your sins may be blotted out, when the times of refreshing shall come from the presence of the Lord." (Acts 3: 19 KJV)

"To him give all the prophets witness, that through his name whosoever believeth in him shall receive remission of sins." (Acts 10: 43 KJV)

"Be it known unto you therefore, men and brethren, that through this man is preached unto you the forgiveness of sins: And by him all that believe are justified from all things, from which ye could not be justified by the law of Moses." (Acts 13: 39 KJV)

"And brought them out, and said, Sirs, what must I do to be saved? And they said, Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ, and thou shalt be saved, and thy house." (Acts 16: 30, 31 KJV)

I cited these verses last evening. I affirmed that the absence of water baptism from the offered terms of pardon demonstrates that water baptism was not viewed as an essential condition of pardon. I showed how that water baptism would never be omitted by faithful evangelists were it an essential term of pardon. To omit it, as I said, would be a case of criminal negligence or malpractice. Now, we can either say that these evangelists were guilty of negligence, or that they did not believe water baptism to be essential to pardon.

Were the apostolic evangelists guilty of criminal neglect in failing to include water baptism in their formulas or prescriptions for pardon?

Argument #4 - Believer has eternal life

"He that believeth on him is not condemned: but he that believeth not is condemned already, because he hath not believed in the name of the only begotten Son of God." (John 3: 18 KJV)

"He that believeth on the Son hath everlasting life: and he that believeth not the Son shall not see life; but the wrath of God abideth on him." (John 3: 36 KJV)

These verses affirm the character of the "believer" in Jesus. Notice how Jesus does not qualify "believer" with an adjective. He does not say "baptized believer." The question is - when is a person a "believer," as Christ here had in mind? Is it before baptism or during baptism? Jesus says that one who believes is alive. Does one believe before baptism? Then he is saved before baptism. He is spiritually alive before baptism. If my opponent argues that one is not a "believer," by definition, until he is "baptized," then he cannot require one be a believer before baptism. He must, to be consistent with such a view, admit to taking unbelievers down into the water, and by immersing them, make them believers.

But, let us see the state of the believer before baptism. He has spiritual life, said Jesus. He is "not condemned," thus justified and forgiven. The wrath of God is removed and he is now God's friend.

These verses affirm that faith alone, such as proceeds from the good and honest heart, is all that is required to unite the sinner to Christ.

Not only is penitent faith the "receiving" act or vehicle for obtaining Christ and his salvation, but it is the "uniting" act. Baptism is not the act of reception or union. Faith is the means of obtaining Christ, of participating in his death, burial, and resurrection, or of receiving his atonement.

Argument #5 - Union with Christ by Faith

"That Christ may dwell in your hearts by faith" (Eph. 3: 17).

This union with Christ is typified in several metaphors in scripture.

First, Christ spoke of the union of himself with believers as like that existing between a Vine and its branches. (John 15: 1-5) The apostle Paul spoke of this union under the figure of a human body in which believers, as lessor bodily members, are mystically joined to Christ the head. Paul also spoke of this union under the metaphor of a marriage, of the union of husband and wife. Other apostles spoke of this union in terms of a likeness to the Temple's union with each stone member of it. Jesus and the apostles also spoke of this union with Christ as involving both identification and participation. One who receives Christ is also at the same time received by Christ. The believer welcomes Christ and Christ welcomes the believing sinner.

Jesus spoke of how receiving him involved participation in him.

For instance, he spoke of sinners "eating" his flesh and "drinking" his blood (John 6: 65) as being the sole condition of salvation. The question then becomes - how and when does a sinner eat and drink? Is it when he does it symbolically in the Lord's Supper? No; for if that were so, then we would have to affirm that no sinner was saved till he observed ceremoniously the Lord's Supper. And, we also ask - Is this done when Christ is believed on and trusted, or when one is baptized in water? Or, is it done when one receives Christ by faith? When he digests the gospel message?

Believing in Christ does not simply make union with Christ possible, as my opponent believes, but is that which actually does unite the sinner to Christ and brings him into participation with Christ and his death, burial, and resurrection. It is also what identifies him with Christ.

Argument #6 - "Things that accompany salvation" (Heb. 6: 9)

What are "these things" that the apostle says "accompany salvation"? What "things" are integral parts of salvation? What are the sine qua non aspects of salvation, the things that are necessary to it? Is faith? Certainly. Is repentance? Yes. Is spiritual union with Christ? Is spiritual baptism? Yes, yes. But, is water baptism? Is the Lord's Supper? Do these ceremonies "accompany salvation"? Are they essential to the change of heart that is the essential element of regeneration? Did water baptism "accompany" the salvation of Zaccheus? Of the publican in the temple? Of the thief on the cross? Of Abraham, David, and other Old Testament saints? It matters not when a person lived or died, whether before Christ or after Christ. All the "saved" partake of these "things that accompany salvation." Thus, if water baptism "accompanies salvation," then it would universally "accompany" it. We know that "faith" has universally accompanied salvation, but we do not know this of the ceremony of baptism.

Certainly there is a spiritual or mystical baptism that "accompanies salvation." This baptism of spirit is an internal change of heart and character, where the soul experiences the power of Christ's resurrection by being reborn, regenerated, re-created. When the soul penitently believes on Christ, he is at that moment "dead to" sin, and to self, and to the world. He is at that moment transformed in his thinking. He is at that moment, and in that experience, experiencing the power of Christ's death, burial, and resurrection. It is absurd to think that this radical internal change occurs in water baptism. Which brings me to my next argument.

Argument #7 - Paul sent to preach the gospel and to save sinners but he was not sent to baptize

"I thank God that I baptized none of you, but Crispus and Gaius; Lest any should say that I had baptized in mine own name. And I baptized also the household of Stephanas: besides, I know not whether I baptized any other. For Christ sent me not to baptize, but to preach the gospel: not with wisdom of words, lest the cross of Christ should be made of none effect." (I Cor. 1: 14-17 KJV)

"Moreover, brethren, I declare unto you the gospel which I preached unto you, which also ye have received, and wherein ye stand; By which also ye are saved, if ye keep in memory what I preached unto you, unless ye have believed in vain. For I delivered unto you first of all that which I also received, how that Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures; And that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day according to the scriptures." (15: 1-4 KJV)

"But rise, and stand upon thy feet: for I have appeared unto thee for this purpose, to make thee a minister and a witness both of these things which thou hast seen, and of those things in the which I will appear unto thee; Delivering thee from the people, and from the Gentiles, unto whom now I send thee, To open their eyes, and to turn them from darkness to light, and from the power of Satan unto God, that they may receive forgiveness of sins, and inheritance among them which are sanctified by faith that is in me." (Acts 26: 16-18 KJV)

Paul says Christ sent him not to baptize but he did send him to save. Conclusion? Baptism is not a means of salvation. Notice specifically how "forgiveness of sins" is the end in view in Christ's sending of Paul to preach. If baptism is the God ordained means of obtaining the forgiveness of sins, then Paul would not have said "Christ sent me not to baptize."

Is one's eyes opened in water baptism or in believing? Is one turned from darkness to light in baptism or in believing?

Argument #8 - Penitent Man is Saved

" this man will I look, even to him that is poor and of a contrite spirit, and trembleth at my word." (Isaiah 66: 2)

When is a man humbled in heart? In water baptism? Or in the experience of repentance? God says he will "look" to a contrite man, that is, he will accept and favorably regard that man. Thus, as a man is made contrite before water baptism, he is accepted by God prior to baptism.

Argument #9 - Knowing the Lord is Salvation

One comes to know the Lord before water baptism. He who knows the Lord is saved.

"And I will give them an heart to know me, that I am the LORD: and they shall be my people, and I will be their God: for they shall return unto me with their whole heart." (Jeremiah 24: 7 KJV)

"And they shall not teach every man his neighbour, and every man his brother, saying, Know the Lord: for all shall know me, from the least to the greatest." (Hebrews 8: 11 KJV)

"I have written unto you, fathers, because ye have known him that is from the beginning." (I John 2: 14 KJV)

"We are of God: he that knoweth God heareth us; he that is not of God heareth not us. Hereby know we the spirit of truth, and the spirit of error. Beloved, let us love one another: for love is of God; and every one that loveth is born of God, and knoweth God. He that loveth not knoweth not God; for God is love." (4: 6-8 KJV)

Lost people are described as not knowing God. (I Thess. 4: 5; II Thess. 1: 8 KJV)

Do we come to know God when we believe his word or when we are baptized?

Argument #10 - Cleansed by Faith

The scriptures describe the salvation or conversion experience as one in which the sinner is bathed, washed, or cleansed. It is the purpose of this divine work to remove moral filth, both legally, in justification, and experimentally, in sanctification. In Christian jargon we refer to this as being "washed in the blood," of spiritually being "plunged in the crimson tide," or being spiritually bathed. This is both an external and internal work. Externally, there is legal or forensic "cleansing" or "purging." It is a judicial act that exonerates or justifies the accused.

The scriptures do say that sinners are saved by water. When they so say, however, they never refer to literal water, except in I Peter 3: 21. Natural water has no power to save or to wash a soul, heart, or mind.

What is the significance of "water" in scripture? When the work of cleansing the soul of sin is the subject, and water is either specifically mentioned or implied, where does water ever refer to the water of baptism, exepting I Peter 3: 21?

"Then will I sprinkle clean water upon you, and ye shall be clean: from all your filthiness, and from all your idols, will I cleanse you." (Ezekiel 36: 25 KJV)

"Jesus answered, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God." (John 3: 5 KJV)

"Jesus answered and said unto her, If thou knewest the gift of God, and who it is that saith to thee, Give me to drink; thou wouldest have asked of him, and he would have given thee living water...Jesus answered and said unto her, Whosoever drinketh of this water shall thirst again: But whosoever drinketh of the water that I shall give him shall never thirst; but the water that I shall give him shall be in him a well of water springing up into everlasting life." (John 4: 10, 13, 14 KJV)

"In the last day, that great day of the feast, Jesus stood and cried, saying, If any man thirst, let him come unto me, and drink. He that believeth on me, as the scripture hath said, out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water. (But this spake he of the Spirit, which they that believe on him should receive: for the Holy Ghost was not yet given; because that Jesus was not yet glorified.)" (John 7: 37-39 KJV)

"That he might sanctify and cleanse it with the washing of water by the word." (Eph. 5: 26 KJV)

Baptism is the answer from a good conscience. A good conscience is one that has been made so by regeneration and the application of the blood of Christ. Cleansing of the conscience involves the removal of its guilt and the replacement of it with pardon and assurance of salvation.

Is this water baptism?

"In that day there shall be a fountain opened to the house of David and to the inhabitants of Jerusalem for sin and for uncleanness." (Zechariah 13: 1 KJV)

Is this fountain water baptism? Or is it the blood of Christ?

"And such were some of you: but ye are washed, but ye are sanctified, but ye are justified in the name of the Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of our God." (I Cor. 6: 11 KJV)

"And from Jesus Christ, who is the faithful witness, and the first begotten of the dead, and the prince of the kings of the earth. Unto him that loved us, and washed us from our sins in his own blood." (Rev. 1: 5 KJV)

"Now ye are clean through the word which I have spoken unto you." (John 15: 3 KJV)

"Having therefore these promises, dearly beloved, let us cleanse ourselves from all filthiness of the flesh and spirit, perfecting holiness in the fear of God." (II Cor. 7: 1 KJV)

"Draw nigh to God, and he will draw nigh to you. Cleanse your hands, ye sinners; and purify your hearts, ye double minded." (James 4: 8 KJV)

"If we confess our sins, he is faithful and just to forgive us our sins, and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness." (II John 1: 9 KJV)

Argument #8 - Saved, Then Baptized

"Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost: Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and, lo, I am with you always, even unto the end of the world. Amen." (Matthew 28: 19, 20 KJV)

Notice the order of salvation in these inspired words of the Great Commission.

1. Go to them
2. Teach or disciple them, that is, bring them to faith and repentance, or convert them, or make disciples of them.
3. Baptize them unto the name of the Trinity
4. Further instruct them in the teachings of the new covenant and of the new lawgiver.

Argument #10 - Love for Christ

Precedes water baptism. He who loves Christ is born again.

Argument #11 - Coming to Christ

Precedes water baptism. Comes by faith and repentance.

Argument #12 - Hearing and Following the Voice of Christ

Precedes water baptism.

Argument #13 - Eating Christ as the Bread of Life

Precedes water baptism.

Argument #14 - Receiving a new heart and spirit.

Precedes water baptism.

Argument #4 - Experiencing faith & repentance = experiencing spiritual death, burial, and resurrection of spirit

What does it mean to "take up the cross" to follow Jesus if it does not involve a death to sin and self? "Taking up the cross" is not a reference to the ceremony of baptism! Men "take up the cross" or "die to sin" when they, in faith, turn away from sin and self and turn to Christ. This is what it means to be "crucified with Christ." The sinner, in his receiving Christ, and believing on his name, "crucifies" and "puts to death" a number of things. This putting to death is immediately followed by a spiritual resurrection and cleansing. When and how does one "die with" Christ? When he believes or when he is baptized? Is it a one time event or a continuous process? I believe the scriptures teach that one, in heart and soul, dies to sin, dies to self, and dies to the world, when he receives Christ, when he believes on his name. A man dies to sin and self, and to the evil world, when he changes his mind and attitude about them. When does this occur? Does it not occur before water baptism? Does it not occur at the point when the man penitently believed?

There is a spiritual baptism of which Christian baptism is a picture.

1. Christ's baptism into sufferings and death, with his emersion from the same, or his own death, burial, and resurrection.

2. The believer's co-baptism, with co-Crucifixion, and co-resurrection, when:

A) Representatively or virtually when Christ was baptized, or when he died, was buried, and rose again.

B) Actually or experimentally when Christ is received and faith and repentance of given. In this spiritual baptism Christ identifies himself with his people.

3) The believer's formal or symbolic baptism in the rite of water baptism. In this baptism Christ further identifies himself with his people.

"Circumcise therefore the foreskin of your heart, and be no more stiffnecked." (Duet. 10: 6 KJV)

"And the LORD thy God will circumcise thine heart, and the heart of thy seed, to love the LORD thy God with all thine heart, and with all thy soul, that thou mayest live." (Duet. 30: 6 KJV)

"Circumcise yourselves to the LORD, and take away the foreskins of your heart, ye men of Judah and inhabitants of Jerusalem: lest my fury come forth like fire, and burn that none can quench it, because of the evil of your doings." (Jeremiah 4: 4 KJV)

This was done by Old Testament saints apart from baptism. It was done by the thief on the cross and the publican in the temple, without water baptism.

The change in the heart and soul of a sinner, when he believes on Christ, and turns to him and away from his sins, is when the sinner experiences the power of Christ's baptism, or of his death, burial, and resurrection. Spiritual baptism, or placement into Christ, occurs when one believes.


Steve H. said...

Thanks for posting this--I look forward to reading it when things slow down. Are there plans for your debate to be on audio or video?

Steve H.

Stephen Garrett said...

Dear Steve:

Your welcome. Thanks for your interest.

Yes, two videos were made of the debate, one by the Baptist seminary and one by the Church of Christ or John Gentry. John and his brethren were offering free videos to all who signed up for it at the debate. I have just e-mailed John about offering the videos here.

I will also be checking to see if Dr. Griffin and the seminary will do the same.